Security that reflects the times we live in

Web special Fraunhofer magazine 2.2022

Resilience, defense capability and increased protection for civilians and against cyberattacks have become topics of public debate almost overnight. Fraunhofer is working on intelligent solutions – including measures for the best possible deployment of the 100 billion euros in special funding awarded to the German armed forces.

Everyone is talking about the “new era,” that has been triggered by Russian president Vladimir Putin’s war of aggression against Ukraine. In Germany, the response has been for the German Federal Parliament (Bundestag) to approve by a large majority a change to the German Basic Law that will release 100 billion euros in special funding. The war has changed many people’s per­spectives of the world, and of Germany’s capacity to optimally deploy its armed forces and offer its citizens the best possible protection in the case of emergency. “We’re seeing a whole host of positive indicators that the government wants to act quickly to strengthen national defense,” notes Prof. Jürgen Beyerer, chair of the Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security (abbreviated VVS) and institute direc­tor of Fraunhofer IOSB. Caroline Schweitzer, managing director of the segment, also pledges that “The research insti­tutes of the Fraunhofer VVS can substantially contribute to our coun­try’s defense capability.”

VVS is a consortium of eleven Fraunhofer institutes that combine their expertise in research fields relevant to security, military technology and defense. VVS representatives regularly provide their expertise and knowledge to the German Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg) and its sub­ordinate agencies and to the German armed forces.

Civil protection and defense capability often go hand in hand, as the broad spectrum of tech­nologies that Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft researchers are focusing on developing for the benefit of industry and society also represents areas of interest for the German armed forces. Examples include digital communication technology for emergency and rescue services to use during disasters, and IT security technology for critical infrastructure. These kinds of technologies strengthen the resilience of civil systems and protect people during crises and disasters. At the same time, they help the German armed forces coordinate operations in the best way possible – in collaboration with other European countries, where necessary.

“Europe had already begun collaborating more closely on the issue of defense even before the Ukrainian crisis, and this is now paying off,” says Schweitzer. “The EU drew up the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), which is supported by a range of research programs. Fraunhofer helps shaping these research programs, and we are also actively participating in Euro­pean consortia that develop new technologies together with partners from industry, research institutions and univer­sities.”

Schweitzer has par­ticipated in numerous expert commissions established by NATO. Since 2015, she has been managing director of VVS. She is well aware of the hot topics in the field of defense in Germany at present, as well as the contributions the Fraun­hofer-Gesellschaft has made in this area. One assertion by Schweitzer is also frequently expressed by other Fraunhofer researchers: While the war in Ukraine has caused concern, she does not see it as a reason to change course. Her tone is matter-of-fact. “We don’t need to open up new research fields, because we are already well positioned in all areas of technology,” Prof. Beyerer also affirms.

Many examples from the VVS institutes show how Fraunhofer research has contributed to maintaining Germany’s defense capability.

Dr. Max Winkelmann vom Fraunhofer IOSB in einem Tarnanzug, der für Wärmebildkameras unsichtbar ist.
Invisible to not just the eye, but potentially also to thermal imaging cameras. Dr. Max Winkelmann is investigating new types of camouflage at Fraunhofer IOSB.

“Enhancing protection for our soldiers”

Defense means self-protection. Camouflaging vehicles and uniforms is a centuries-old practice – one that researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB are currently aiming to improve upon. They are working on camou­flage clothing that autonomously adapts to its environment. Integrated sensors measure the ambient brightness and predominant colors and then transmit this information to intelligently controlled LEDs integrated into the textiles. These then emit light in the appropriate color and level of brightness, al lowing soldiers to essentially merge with their surroundings. The person wearing the uniform does not need to do anything – they do not have to press a button or activate any sensors. This technol­ogy is already here. In the future, if a soldier is in contact with aerial reconnaissance via an information system, the camouf lage clothing will be able to adjust its color spectrum in order to avoid being detected by the optical sensors of an overhead drone. “We can use camouflage to manipulate perception,” explains Max Winkel­mann, research fellow at Fraunhofer IOSB. The team is not only focused on optics, however – the researchers are also conducting research into textiles that can deceive thermal imaging cameras. “We are currently experimenting with a broad range of new tech­nologies to enhance protection for our soldiers,” reveals Winkelmann.

Laminated safety glass provides security  

The Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut, EMI is also focused on optimized protection for people in deployment. Here, Elmar Straßburger and Dr. Steffen Bauer shoot at glass with metal projectiles, evaluate the damage and draw conclusions about how windows in vehicles can be better protected when under fire.

Researchers such as Dr. Steffen Bauer at Fraunhofer EMI are investigating glass panes using high-speed cameras. Their goal is to develop laminated safety glass that will not shatter, not even under sustained fire.
Researchers such as Dr. Steffen Bauer at Fraunhofer EMI are investigating glass panes using high-speed cameras. Their goal is to develop laminated safety glass that will not shatter, not even under sustained fire.

Laminated safety glass is generally used for this purpose. Ultimately, its strength is determined by the thickness of the individual layers and the combination of different glass types used. “We are not simply investigating whether the projectile breaks through the pane. The pane often with­stands the first shot, and the second one, too. But with the third shot, the pane shatters completely and can no longer protect people inside the vehi­cle.” The researchers are therefore focusing on the question of how stable a pane of glass is when it has already been dam­aged by a projectile – and the initial damage hap­pens right at the moment the projectile strikes, i.e. before it begins to pene­trate the glass. This is because the impact cre­ates shock waves within the glass that precede the projectile at high speed and can lead to cracks forming. Fraunhofer EMI researchers are using high-speed cameras to record these processes – from the impact to the deceleration of the pro­jectile in just 200 micro­seconds. The experts are also using X-ray com­puted tomography and numerical simulation models “in order to make more precise predictions regarding the strength and resilience of lami­nated glass and laminates with different material combinations and layer thicknesses,” explains Bauer.

Air defense system "Future Combat Air System"(FCAS)

Fraunhofer researchers are also involved in what is expected to be the largest and most ambi­tious European defense program of the coming decades. There are plans to integrate the Future Combat Air System (abbreviated FCAS) as an air defense system into existing platforms such as Eurofighter or Rafale from 2040 onwards, before fully replacing them at a later point. Almost all VVS institutes are participating in this mammoth project, with Fraunhofer FKIE acting as the point of contact. FCAS will be much more than just a combat aircraft. The latest generation of manned jets will be integrated into a “system of systems.” Unmanned aircraft, known as “remote carriers,” will accompany and protect pilots during combat missions. Central to this will be the Air Combat Cloud that will provide those involved with all relevant information in real time.

This new solution raises new questions. Advanced technology and digitalization are increasingly accelerating military operations and making them more data-intensive, which in turn means they are more complex. However, when AI-driven systems start making decisions by themselves, the technology is crossing a line. “The requirements for speed and complexity in future combat situations will be so high, they will not be possible without semi-automatic or automatic technical processes,” explains Prof. Wolfgang Koch, chief scientist at the Fraunhofer Institute for Communication, Information Processing and Ergonomics FKIE.

This will require new evaluations and analy­sis of the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in weapon systems. VVS has drawn up a position paper, “Rise of Intelligent Systems in Military Weapon Systems,” for this purpose. This sets out the latest techno­logical advancements, investigates uses and risks, and presents a conceptual framework for explain­able, controllable AI.

But that’s not all. Researchers have established the Working Group on Technology Responsibility, which aims to define and present ethical and legal guidelines for Europe’s largest defense project. In addition to Prof. Koch, participants in the working group include individuals from different social groups, such as the writer Nora Bossong, Anja Dahlmann of the German Institute for Interna­tional and Security Affairs, Ulrike Franke, senior policy fellow at the European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR), and the historian Florian Keisinger. “The working group is not intended to be a toothless debating society, and is most cer­tainly not an intellectual fig leaf to conceal the use of AI in military operations,” affirms Prof. Koch. “The plan is rather to provide systematic support and help shape the system design, oper­ation and implementation of technologies in FCAS.”

Germany, Spain and France have teamed up to develop FCAS, with additional European coun­tries set to join their ranks over time. “FCAS is a pan-European project that could greatly boost the European Common Security and Defence Policy,” explains Koch.

Precision creates security

Precise knowledge also helps improve safety for emergency service personnel. Researchers such as Dr. Stephan Palm at Fraunhofer FHR in Wachtberg are focused on reconnaissance, more specifically synthetic-aperture radar (SAR). This form of radar generates an image from many smaller images captured with a moving antenna, showing the two-dimensional reflectivity of the scene. Scien­tists at Fraunhofer FHR are experimenting with circular SAR at extremely high carrier frequencies. Dr. Palm has also completed a PhD on the topic.  

 

Research must focus on public safety and security

During this process, an aircraft or reconnaissance drone follows a circular flight path around the area to be observed while continuously directing a radar beam at the center. This generates images from multiple angles, enabling individual objects to be captured in 3D, i.e. viewed from several sides. This also allows for a much higher resolu­tion can be achieved with conventional imaging on linear trajectories. “Circular SAR makes it possible to create SAR videos and visualize objects in motion on the ground, such as moving cars,” says Dr. Palm.

Using the current experimental system, a reconnaissance aircraft flying at a height of 600 meters over the target area can identify objects smaller than 5 centimeters in size. Aircraft can also reach much higher altitudes if more output power is provided. This allows for high-resolution reconnaissance in real time, even in poor weather conditions or at night.

An additional focus of research activity at Fraunhofer is public safety and security. Daniel Hiller, managing director at Fraunhofer SIRIOS, describes enormous “challenges for society posed by dangers such as terrorism, cyberattacks and climate change.” Fraunhofer SIRIOS, a collabora­tion between four Fraunhofer institutes, com­menced operations in January 2022 in Berlin. These Fraunhofer experts are focusing on the principle of simulations that can be experienced virtually. Fraunhofer SIRIOS creates detailed simulations of the development of dangerous events such as attacks or explosions, and the probable reaction of the people affected. However, the simulation is not only limited to abstract data sets and graphics. “Our aim is to create a virtual visual representa­tion of these events and their specific effects, including using 3D VR.”

 Olaf Korte vom Fraunhofer IIS mit einem DAB+-Radio für den Einsatz von EWF (Emergency Warning Functionality).
A little radio that offers greater security: Radio networks are more stable than mobile networks in times of crisis. For this reason, Olaf Korte from Fraunhofer IIS depends on EWF (Emergency Warning Functionality) instead of apps.

How can warnings be issued to the public?>

Olaf Korte at Fraunhofer IIS is focusing on early warning systems, which are crucial in hazard­ous situations such as natural disasters. Many traditional warning siren systems have been dismantled in recent years, or are no longer being maintained. Although warning apps do exist for smartphones, these devices rely on a functioning cell phone network. Radio networks are much more robust. Olaf Korte and his colleagues are betting on these. The EWF (Emergency Warning Functionality) feature allows for a warning to be triggered from a central location such as an interior ministry. This is sent as a switchover or wake-up signal, and transmits an audio message with scrolling text to the display on the end device. DAB+ radios can receive the message. Higher-quality receivers also offer multilingual and more detailed text for hearing impaired peo­ple and foreign language speakers. The warnings and information text can also be used for public display boards. “An advantage of this technology is that warnings about an imminent storm, for instance, can be regionally distributed in a highly precise way,” says Korte. The distribution of DAB+ in Germany is currently only around 25 percent, but this figure is increasing.
 

A radar for investment

Globally, research and technological develop­ment in the areas of civil protection and defense has been running at peak levels in order to bet­ter protect people not only from the impact of climate change, but also from military attacks. The military technology radar (MiTeRa) tool developed at Fraunhofer FKIE delivers a con­tinuously updated overview of a wide range of research activities.

Dr. Hanna Geppert and Dr. Carsten Winkelholz have created this software tool together with their team and the German Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg) to maintain a continuous overview of the maturity level, intensity and planning status of research activities related to important future technologies. “When certain communication tools become obsolete, it’s important to know when new technology will be market-ready, in order to avoid gaps,” explains Dr. Geppert. This is made possible by taking an ergonomic approach, and by consid­ering who requires information to make an informed decision, what kind of information they need, and when they need it. The result is an interactive, intuitive representation based on visual analytics. The BMVg is currently using the tech­nology radar tool in cybersecurity and IT research, and there are plans to use it in additional areas as needed.

 

A growing need − and government willingness put down on paper

The German armed forces and Ministry of Defense also want to know about future technological trends and what the armed forces’ equipment will look like in the future. The technology that will be employed in modern weapon systems in 10 or 20 years is the subject of ongoing research proj­ects − mostly driven by civilians − in laboratories around the world, although technology readiness levels are still low. The Fraunhofer Institute for Technological Trend Analysis INT offers an over­view of this research. “We have been providing a 360° view of this complex technological landscape for over 40 years, and we advise the BMVg in terms of designing their departmental research program,” explains Prof. Michael Lauster, head of Fraunhofer INT and deputy spokesperson of the Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS. In addition, the quarterly publication from Fraunhofer INT, “Defense Technology Foresight,” provides planners and decision-makers with essential information for making future-proof equipment decisions.

Germany’s defense requirements are growing, the government’s willingness to act is a docu­mented fact − and research is ready and waiting. “We have already made targeted offers of services to the Ministry of Defense,” says Schweitzer, VVS managing director. “We are in a position where we can rapidly react to specific requests from the German armed forces and bring new technologies into the field,” Prof. Jürgen Beyerer, VVS chair, also affirms. When it comes to the current situa­tion, the VVS chair believes that: “We will be able to demonstrate this capability to an even greater extent in the future.”

 

Fraunhofer magazine
2/2022

Protection and security

A new era, new challenges, new solutions

Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS

The Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS carries out research into the security of mankind, society and the state – for a life of freedom In times of social and political unrest, defense and security become increasingly important. We develop technologies, products and services for the early detection of dangerous situations, so that they can be counteracted, consequential damage can be minimised and, as a result, the overall level of risk can be reduced.

Fraunhofer Center for the Security of Socio-Technical Systems SIRIOS

The Fraunhofer Center for the Security of Socio-Technical Systems (Fraunhofer SIRIOS) makes complex security scenarios tangible and controllable in order to increase security and resilience in society.

 

Civilian technology for crisis situations

“The research institutes of the Fraunhofer VVS can substantially contribute to our country’s defense capability.”


Caroline Schweitzer, managing director of the Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS

Protection against projectiles

Laboratory tests with computed tomography and high-speed cameras show the damage that projectiles can cause to transparent surfaces such as laminated glass windows. This data can be used to improve the protection of military vehicles.

Reconnaissance

The ABUL system provides a diverse range of partly AI-driven functions for evaluating the images and live stream videos from reconnaissance drones. This technology is in use in German armed forces operations in Mali, among other locations.

Energy supply

The aim is to develop innovative concepts to ensure that facilities, operational infrastructure (such as military camps) and vehicles of all kinds can be supplied with energy from sustainable sources in the future. This also ensures that operational readiness is not restricted.

Camouflage

Fraunhofer researchers are working on innovative technology for camouflag­ing uniforms and vehicles. A combination of sensors and LEDs integrated into fabric creates colors and patterns on uniforms that continu­ously adapt to the environ­ment and purpose of the operation.

Mission planning

The digital map table is a software system that allows users to visualize and work on complex situations. Any number of users can use it to work together on the same situation − either on a large display, or from different locations with their indivi- dual devices.

Information system for networks

Coalition Shared Data (CSD) allows stakeholders to save reconnaissance data in multinational networks in a needs-based, uniform manner – in accordance with a NATO standard – as well as distribute and retrieve it, all while respect­ing data ownership. CSD technology is deployed in a variety of the German armed forces’ foreign assignments.

 

Future Combat Air System (FCAS)

Germany, Spain and France have joined forces to develop the FCAS aerial defense system. Combat aircraft are combined with unmanned aircraft known as remote carriers in a networked system of systems to supply a mission with all necessary data and information in real time.  

Detecting hybrid threats

Hybrid threats combine physical threats with threats related to cyberspace and information space. The threat can only be comprehensively understood by considering both physical actions, such as troop movements, radio communication and kinetic attacks, and cyberspace and information space attacks such as disinformation campaigns or hacker attacks.  

Military technology radar

The military technology radar (MiTeRa) provides a clear overview of relevant research activities and their maturity levels for the German armed forces, which allows them to optimize long-term planning.

Warning and alarm systems

High-performance information logistics and architecture for net­worked public warning and alarm systems.

Defense against drones with high-energy microwaves

Targeted disruption of drones’ electronic systems for motor control, flight attitude and other control elements using high-en­ergy microwaves offers all-round protection against individual drones, but also safeguards objects that need to be protected against swarms.

Detecting electromag­netic attacks

An extremely compact detector can be integrated into mobile and stationary weapon systems. It then recognizes and analyzes the type and direction of an attack using microwaves.

Emergency warning

The warning system EWF (Emergency Warning Functionality) uses DAB+ digital radio to issue warnings to the public in the case of disasters, attacks or incidents of any kind.  

SE/EKUS operations management and communication system

The SE/EKUS operations management and communication system supports special police units in operational preparation, mission management and communication.  

Rocket detection

Bi-spectral infrared detectors can be used to detect and identify approaching rockets. This system is used by Airbus A400M aircraft, for instance.

 

Radar reconnaissance

Using a circular flight path and a very high frequency, circular SAR radar recon­naissance is used in aircraft to provide significantly higher three-dimensional resolution for objects on the ground. Video SAR can also be used to visualize moving objects.

 

Mine clearance

Ground-penetrating radar using polarimetric antennas that can be installed on the front of a mine clearance vehicle. This radar even detects mines made of plastic and material mixtures.

Civil protection

Virtual simulation helps researchers to analyze natural disasters, attacks and other incidents and their effects on socio-tech­nical systems, and to make decisions when it comes to optimizing rescue opera­tions and restoring critical infrastructures.

7 hypotheses on the future of defense technology

By Prof. Michael Lauster

Prof. Michael Lauster, head of the Fraunhofer Institute for Technological Trend Analysis INT and deputy spokesperson of the Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS.
Following his officer’s training, Michael Lauster studied aerospace technology at Universität der Bundeswehr München (military university of Munich). Prof. Lauster has been deputy spokesperson for the Fraunhofer Segment for Defense and Security VVS since 2020.

1

Specially adapted materials are cru­cial to armed conflict in all domains, whether land, air or sea. Just like knights’ armor hundreds of years ago, modern battle tanks are becoming heavier, and there­fore less and less mobile. Robust, light materials and new protection methods are enabling the construction of smaller, lighter vehicles that offer their crews the same level of protection. They are also more mobile and require less energy for operation. Especially when consid­ering the shortage of fossil fuels, weight is an essential factor.

 

2

In addition to new drive and control concepts, materials that are light but also resistant to high temperatures are crucial for the push into the area of hyper­sonics. Hypersonic aircraft deliver a new level of quality. They are difficult to track, can be maneuvered even at the highest speeds above Mach 5, i.e. over 6,000 kilometers per hour, and achieve ranges of several thousand kilometers. For high-value targets, they represent a threat against which there is currently little defense. To safeguard such targets, the development of new camouflage materials is growing in sig­nificance, in particular for ship and submarine protection.

 

3

Quantum technology (see p. 24 for “On your marks … get set … compute!” and p. 47 “When quantum computers attack”) represents a promising area for dis­ruptive development, and not only in the civil division. Quantum computers could play an important role in material design in the future. Their development is just one aspect of the prac­tical application of quantum theory, which will also open up the field of subatomics for military use. Quantum communication, quantum sen­sors and, last but not least, weapons based on quantum effects, such as lasers with an output of over 100 kW, are all currently in development.

 

4

Machine learning and pattern rec­ognition offer valuable support for evaluating sensor data or detecting adversarial behavior. For military use, the most important factors are understandable decision-making processes (explainable AI), interference resistance in the military’s own AI system and the potential to deceive another AI system (adversarial AI). Digital imaging of a battlefield will be available for all levels of organization, and the required information will be transmitted according to the situation.

 

5

Space travel is set to play an increas­ingly significant role in security. Satellites will be used for navigation and communication, but that’s not all. In the future, it will be possible to carry out recon­naissance using satellites in low Earth orbit, with customizable configurations that can be launched as required. Under the “responsive space” model, it will be possible to quickly replace disabled satellites in orbit by launch­ing our own assets within a short time.

 

6

Technology has been a decisive fac­tor in armed conflict throughout his­tory. The side that could build more effective weaponry had a significant advan­tage. Swords and shields made from bronze were tougher and more durable than their precursors made of copper or wood and ani­mal hide. The development of powerful cross­bows and the first muzzle-loading firearms brought the era of heavily armored knights to an end; the invention of aircraft unlocked the aerial domain as an additional battlefield. When combined with ships from which they could launch and land, aircraft enabled global power projection. A range of nuclear weapons, alongside carrier rockets and other long-range forms of transportation led to the rise of superpowers. Still today, armies aim to use the highest-quality equipment. However, even the most up-to-date technology is useless without people who know how to use it. The difference between combat effectiveness (i.e. the type and number of weapons) and combat readiness (i.e. the determination and ability to deploy them) is crucial. Only a combination of effective technology and highly motivated, well-educated soldiers will lead to success in combat situations.
 

7

For all the latest technology, it is the 2,500-year-old saying from Sun Tzu’s “The Art of War”, the earliest histori­cal text on strategy, that holds sway: “To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.”